Standard Theory and Extended Standard Theory-2

Fig. 23 Aspects Model Grammar (Encyclopedia Britannica 1994) The meaning of a sentence is determined form its deep structure by means of the rules of semantic component of a grammar. The phonetic form of a sentence is determined from its surface structure by means of the rules of phonological component. Thus, grammar may now be defined as a system of rules for relating pronunciation of…

Standard Theory and Extended Standard Theory-1

The Standard Theory differs from the early Transformational – Generative Grammar theory in that it introduces the distinction between competence and performance of an ideal speaker-hearer of a language as well as between deep and surface structure in a sentence. According to Chomsky “linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-community, who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected…

Phrase structure grammar

Syntactic description of a sentence may be carried out in accordance with ‘immediate constituent analysis’ (Chomsky 1957). In keeping with this type of analysis, words of a sentence are arranged into phrases, which can be divided into smaller constituent phrases and so forth, until the ultimate constituents (words or morphemes) are reached. Those phrases can afterwards be categorized as noun phrases (NP), verb phrases (VP),…

Chomsky – Definition of language and grammar

Language as conceived of by Chomsky is “a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements” (Chomsky 1957:13). As he further claims, this holds true for all natural languages since they have “a finite number of phonemes (or letters in its alphabet) and each sentence is representable as a finite sequence of these phonemes…

Finite state grammar

Finite state grammar is one that is “capable of generating an infinite set of sentences by means of a finite number of recursive rules operating upon a finite vocabulary” (Lyons 1970:51). By ‘recursive’ it is meant applicable more than once in the generation of the same sentence. According to finite state grammar, sentences are generated as a result of choices made from left to right.…

Teaching grammar to young learners – two ways of teaching grammar

Grammar can be taught in two ways, and the outcome of the teaching process will depend on the chosen way. When rules of grammar of the target language are talked about, this approach is referred to as explicit grammar teaching. It requires the students to learn rules given by the teacher, afterwards practicing them in exercises. Since explicit teaching of grammar involves talking about rules…

Competition model

The manner in which a second language is learnt or acquired and how the first language might affect this process is accounted for by a theory which is called “The Competition Model”. In accordance with this model every language has particular ways of portraying meanings which are identified as patterns enabling interpreting of the perceived input (Lynne 2001:14). It is at early childhood that these…

Critical Period Hypothesis

It is generally accepted, that child who starts learning language at an early age is more likely to learn it perfectly than those who start learning second language after they reach puberty. This idea is called Critical Period Hypothesis. It is connected with the fact that young child’s brain does not lack in some devices which support acquiring first language. It is particularly true for…

Age as an important factor in second language learning

It is common knowledge that young learners participate in foreign language lessons more keenly and briskly than adolescents. Moreover, they are eager to take part in exercises even if they do not quite apprehend what it is for, or what is the precise manner they ought to do it in. In addition, it is more important for them to make teachers happy rather than show…

Burner’s theory

The third presented theory is closely connected with Vygotsky’s view that interaction and language learning are correlated with expansion of awareness and comprehension (Brumfit, 1995:3). He presents a new idea named LASS which stands for Language Acquisition Support System. Brumfit, Moon and Tongue (1995:3). “Burner is one of the most notable contemporary exponents of the view that children’s language and learning development takes place through…