Phrase structure grammar

Syntactic description of a sentence may be carried out in accordance with ‘immediate constituent analysis’ (Chomsky 1957). In keeping with this type of analysis, words of a sentence are arranged into phrases, which can be divided into smaller constituent phrases and so forth, until the ultimate constituents (words or morphemes) are reached. Those phrases can afterwards be categorized as noun phrases (NP), verb phrases (VP),…

Chomsky – Definition of language and grammar

Language as conceived of by Chomsky is “a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements” (Chomsky 1957:13). As he further claims, this holds true for all natural languages since they have “a finite number of phonemes (or letters in its alphabet) and each sentence is representable as a finite sequence of these phonemes…

Finite state grammar

Finite state grammar is one that is “capable of generating an infinite set of sentences by means of a finite number of recursive rules operating upon a finite vocabulary” (Lyons 1970:51). By ‘recursive’ it is meant applicable more than once in the generation of the same sentence. According to finite state grammar, sentences are generated as a result of choices made from left to right.…

Critical Period Hypothesis

It is generally accepted, that child who starts learning language at an early age is more likely to learn it perfectly than those who start learning second language after they reach puberty. This idea is called Critical Period Hypothesis. It is connected with the fact that young child’s brain does not lack in some devices which support acquiring first language. It is particularly true for…

Burner’s theory

The third presented theory is closely connected with Vygotsky’s view that interaction and language learning are correlated with expansion of awareness and comprehension (Brumfit, 1995:3). He presents a new idea named LASS which stands for Language Acquisition Support System. Brumfit, Moon and Tongue (1995:3). “Burner is one of the most notable contemporary exponents of the view that children’s language and learning development takes place through…

Vygotsky’s theory

A theory that focuses on child’s development, emphasises different aspects of child’s development in comparison with Piaget’s one. The second year of child’s cognitive development is thought to be crucial. It is then when child commences to use language, which provides him with an instrument allowing him to interact and arrange new knowledge. At first child uses language mainly to obtain help, which an adult…

Piaget’s theory

Piaget’s interest is to find the answer to the question how mental development of child is affected by the environment in which the young person lives. The milieu constantly causes difficulties which child has to overcome by interaction with the world, which process is the foundation for learning (Lynne 2001:2). Thinking thus Piaget proposes assimilation and accommodation as two means which reinforce the process of…