Vygotsky’s theory

A theory that focuses on child’s development, emphasises different aspects of child’s development in comparison with Piaget’s one. The second year of child’s cognitive development is thought to be crucial. It is then when child commences to use language, which provides him with an instrument allowing him to interact and arrange new knowledge. At first child uses language mainly to obtain help, which an adult…

Piaget’s theory

Piaget’s interest is to find the answer to the question how mental development of child is affected by the environment in which the young person lives. The milieu constantly causes difficulties which child has to overcome by interaction with the world, which process is the foundation for learning (Lynne 2001:2). Thinking thus Piaget proposes assimilation and accommodation as two means which reinforce the process of…

Mnemonic devices

The basic problem tht students experience with vocabulary is the rapid fading of new items from the short term memory before their transmission into long term memory. This is caused by insufficient consolidation and revision and can be overcome through mnemonics – shaping memory strategies which help to buid on new vocabulary on the basis of the already familiar entities. Some of those techniques are…

Types of memory

Memory Type Description Example Visual memory Vision is the primary sense involved during the memorization process Remembering a person’s face Auditory memeory Hearing is the most active sense Remembring the teacher’s instructions Spatial ordering Remembering things in a particular order Memorizing phone numbers Short-term memory A temporary memory for processing the most recent information Remembering things heard or seen a moment ago Long-term memory Intended…

Attention

Attention can be either involuntary (spontaneous) or intentional. It can be characterized by the length of time it remains active (attention span), by the strength of mental processes involved (attention intensity), and by the number of items it could be focused on (attention division). It greatly depends on an individual’s temperament, emotions, interests, well-being, age, and surroundings. One of the first major psychologists, William James,…

The significance of attention and memory in the learning process

Attention and memory are a series of mental processes within the brain which enable humans to organize information in such a way that they can succeed in educational institutions, work, and social life. The academic achievement of students afflicted with ADHD is dependent on how well the information is processed by their brain as well as to what extent these processes are affected by the…

Techniques in revising and consolidating vocabulary

Even the best presentation technique is not enough in itself to help to internalize the language. In order to shift the lexicon from passive to active students need a lot of practice and recycling of the vocabulary taught. The multitude of techniques at this stage includes: graphs and grids, matching synonyms or antonyms, filling in diagrams, paraphrasing, multiple choice or gap filling exercises, cloze tests,…

Techniques in presenting, revising and consolidating vocabulary

Techniques in presenting vocabulary As Hubbard (1983:50)claims, vocabulary should be presented in a memorable way in order to foster the long memory retention. This can be done in a number of ways, the best of which is a combination of several presentation techniques which should be selected in accordance to the item’s nature. Yet what is essential is to reinforce students’ understanding of the words…

Factors affecting word learnability

Whether a word is acquired with ease or with difficulty depends on a number of factors such as pronounceability, orthography, length, morphology, grammar, and semantic features, which are thoroughly described by Schmitt and MacCarthy (1997:143-153) as follows: PRONOUNCEABILITY A number of studies demonstrate that the learners’ L1 system affects acquisition of a foreign language in various ways. It may be responsible for the learners’ inability…

Aspects of knowing a word

Neglected for decades, learning and teaching vocabulary has gained a great importance both in native and foreign language acquisition as one of the central components of the process. As stressed by McCarthy (1990), there is no meaningful means of expression in communication without words, regardless of the level of mastery of the other sub-skills. Assimilation of the basic unit of a language system, namely a…