A theory that focuses on child’s development, emphasises different aspects of child’s development in comparison with Piaget’s one. The second year of child’s cognitive development is thought to be crucial. It is then when child commences to use language, which provides him with an instrument allowing him to interact and arrange new knowledge. At first child uses language mainly to obtain help, which an adult may give, or a hint the solve a problem. According to Vygotsky it is the hinting, not helping that contributes to its learning most efficiently (Lynne 2001:5).

This led to his inventing of a theory called ZPD which Brumfit and Tongue (1995: 271) named as: “ the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem-solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem- solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers”.

Exemplifying the role of ZPD Vygotsky portrays an image of teacher who ought to provide learners with an exemplary phrases or structures which would serve as a basis for learning. Encouraging students to make a similar sentence the teacher can ask for feedback. In case of emerging ZPD hints ought to be given from which different students should benefit (Lynne 2001:6).

In this view child is perceived as the first and foremost cooperating with other people. Only with time and progress does child start being independent rather that reliant on others. What is more, Vygotsky maintains that guidance and teaching are vital when it comes to assisting child to learn to focus its attention and acquire knowledge effectively (Brumfit, et al 1995:8).